All the google penalties out there can broadly be categorized as Manual Penalty and Algorithm Penalty.
Unlike manual penalties, algorithm penalties from Google are quite complicated. Algorithm penalties are automated. They can get your website penalized even for issues in the website design. Fixing an algorithm penalty is tough on a whole new level. The toughest task is to identify the penalty. Even after fixing the issue, you cannot file a reconsideration request but wait until the algorithm reviews the same.